Inspections

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INSPECTIONS AND ENFORCEMENT

As stipulated in Section 9 (1)(d) of the Atomic Energy Act No. 24 of 2008, one of the functions of the Atomic Energy Council is to conduct inspections to assess radiation safety, security conditions and compliance with the Act, the Atomic Energy Regulations, 2012 and the conditions specified in authorizations (licenses and permits issued to facilities).

The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) Safety Standards for Radiation Protection and Safety of Radiation Sources: International Basic Safety Standards (General Safety Requirements Part 3 – par. 2.30, Requirement 3) also requires that a regulatory body establishes a regulatory system for protection and safety that includes inspection of facilities and activities.

A. OBJECTIVES OF INSPECTIONS

Inspections are carried out with the prime objective of ensuring that radiation safety and protection requirements are adhered to, to prevent the likelihood of occurrence of stochastic effects and deterministic effects.

The more specific objectives are;

· to determine the level of implementation of the requirements and recommendations made in a previous inspection (in case of a follow up inspection)

· to determine the level of compliance with requirements of Atomic Energy Regulations, 2012 related to;

Ø Administrative and Management;

Ø Radiation Protection performance;

Ø Occupational exposure protection of the facility workers;

Ø Medical exposure protection and;

Ø Public exposure protection

Ø Safety and security

Ø Emergency intervention;

Ø Verify the performance parameters of the radiation generators

Ø Carry out radiation survey measurements.

B. PRACTICES INSPECTED

The AEC inspects facilities with the following applications of ionizing radiation;

a) Medical Applications

Diagnostic X-ray Machines, Fluoroscopy Units, Computed Tomography (CT), Radiotherapy, Nuclear Medicine, Brachytherapy, Dental X-rays, Mammography, etc.

b) Industrial Applications

Nuclear gauges (Level, Moisture, Density), Well logging, Industrial X-ray Scanners, Industrial Radiography, Industrial Computed Tomography, Baggage Scanners, etc.

c) Agriculture and Research

Tsetse fly eradication, Tracer studies, Soil sampling, Research in Physics

C. TYPES OF INSPECTION

The Atomic Energy Council carries out the following types of inspections;

a) Routine Inspections

Carried out according to a work plan and based on a graded approach.

b) Follow up inspections

Carried out to verify level of implementation of requirements and recommendations from the routine inspections

c) Pre-authorization inspection

Carried to verify information provided in an application for authorization by a facility

d) Reactive inspections

Carried out in response to reports of an incident or report to verify status

The inspections may be announced or unannounced as deemed suitable by the inspectors.

Additional inspections may be required:

In the event of abnormal events such as safety related incidents or accidents; or should there be significant changes in the practice (structural alterations, new types of radiation sources, changes in key personnel)

D. METHODOLOGY

The inspection findings are gathered through:

  1. Interviews with the facility staff;
  2. Observations during normal operations;
  3. Review of representative records related to the practice;
  4. Carrying out radiation survey measurements within and around the facility to determine how much radiation escapes out of the room
  5. Performing quality control tests on the equipment.

E. PROCEDURES

When the inspectors visit a facility, there are procedures to be followed to facilitate the inspection;

  1. Identify the need for the inspection at a facility
  2. Review the facility file
  3. Hold pre-inspection meeting at the office
  4. Prepare inspection documents
  5. Carry out an entrance briefing with the Administrators
  6. Tour relevant areas of the facility
  7. Visit the equipment room to carry out actual inspection basing on a checklist
  8. Review the representative records at the facility
  9. Review of the outcomes of the results from the inspection
  10. Carry out an exit briefing and discussion with a representative of the department staff and an administrator.
  11. Prepare an inspection report
  12. Carry out a follow –up inspection on the non-compliances

F. STATISTICS

The Council has carried out over 670 inspections since its establishment. As atMay, 2017, Council has conducted inspectionsin 83.5% of the registered facilities. The table and graph below summarizes the information about inspections conducted by Atomic Energy Council in 2017.

Summary of inspections per financial year

2010/2011

2011/2012

2012/2013

2013/2014

2014/2015

2015/2016

2016/2017

Inspections conducted

2

12

76

100

200

153

Ongoing

Facilities Inspected

2

12

76

95

187

149

Ongoing

 

 

 

 

ENFORCEMENT ACTIVITIES

Enforcement is an activity conducted by AEC to encourage the facility to comply with the requirements in the Atomic Energy Act No. 24 of 2008 and Atomic Energy Regulations of 2012. Enforcement is provided for under section 44 of the Atomic Energy Act and in regulation 11 of the Atomic energy regulations of 2012. It can be carried out in form of warnings, closure, court redress, seizure and revocation of the license.

Facilities may be enforced if;

1. They have repetitive violations identified from previous inspections.

2. The performance parameters are not within the permissible levels.

3. The radiation leakage outside the radiation premises is higher than the recommended level.

4. Found using unqualified staff to operate the radiation devices/sources.

5. They lack adequate and appropriate protective gears like the aprons, thyroid glands, gonadal shields.

6. They are operating without authorization from Atomic Energy Council.

7. The radiation premises are deemed unfit for the intended purpose.

Facilities whose practices involving use of radiation sources/generators have been suspended are re-opened after addressing the safety gaps that led to the suspension.

During the month of March 2017, eight (08) facilities were enforced and none of them has been re-opened. This brings the total number of enforced and re-opened facilities to one hundred fifty three (153) and ninety three (93) respectively since January 2015.

For more information see the attachments

Brochure for Inspection

 

Download Regulatory inspections at medical facilities

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